Rusophycus Hall, 1852

DESCRIPTION: Small to medium bilobate structures, lobes are parallel or sometimes merged near the posterior. Can be formed like elliptical bulges with taperings to one end; can have furrows. Form pits that vary in size and shape, and excavated either deeply or shallowly in the medium. Transverse scratch marks are visible in firmer media.

BEHAVIOR(S): Cubichnia, praedichnia, or fodinichnia; Evidence of a resting animal; can represent concealment or stationary feeding with some position shifts. Can be interpreted as a predatory trace when found superimposed on an endobenthic trace like Helminthopsis.

ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS: Shallow marine settings, but also reported in fluvial and shallow lacustrine soft-ground media. Reported in Cambrian – Ordovician deep-marine flysch deposits.

POSSIBLE TRACEMAKERS: Trilobites (Precambrian - recent), starfish, bilateral arthropods and vertebrates, or other non-sessile benthic dweller (Permian - recent). Larger specimens could be made by vertebrates.

GEOLOGIC RANGE: Late Precambrian-recent.

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES: (Fillion and Pickerill, 1990)(Pickerill, 1995)(Keighley and Pickerill, 1996)(Pickerill and Blissett, 2000).